ISSN 0718-3291 Versión Impresa

ISSN 0718-3305 Versión en línea

Volumen 17 N° 3, Septiembre - Diciembre 2009

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Una aplicación educacional para el diseño de productos y sistemas de ingeniería utilizando modelos conceptuales integrados

Bernabé Hernandis Ortuño1                    Juan Carlos Briede Westermeyer2

1 Departamento de Ingeniería Gráfica. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. C P: 46022. Valencia, España. E-mail: bhernand@degi.upv.es
2 Departamento de Arte y Tecnologías del Diseño. Universidad del Bío-Bío. C P: 4050231. Concepción, Chile. E-mail: jbriede@ubiobio.cl


RESUMEN 

El presente artículo describe el uso y la aplicación de una nueva metodología desarrollada para el diseño conceptual de nuevos productos que refuerza aquellos aspectos innovadores del proceso de diseño fomentando el desarrollo creativo. Es un modelo dinámico basado en el pensamiento cíclico que mantiene las prescripciones impuestas o decididas libremente por el diseñador. Contempla amplios grados de desagregación y desarrollo en su definición y permite registrar la información durante todo el proceso. Su aplicación y posterior análisis para el desarrollo conceptual de productos como su uso en investigación permite abordar los aspectos fundamentales que contempla el diseño y transferirlos como características implícitas en éste. También se muestra una de las prácticas docentes en que se ha utilizado el diseño en ingeniería, como así también los resultados obtenidos. El modelo se aplicó a dos grupos de alumnos con experiencia en diseño de productos. Este modelo ha supuesto una reducción de tiempos que mejoró los resultados comparativos de años anteriores. La utilización del modelo gestiona el conocimiento de manera separada y utiliza el dibujo como síntesis representativa, basada en los modelos teóricos que estructuran los atributos teóricos del  producto según los objetivos planteados. Es un modelo que sirve de guía, pues determina totalmente las pautas de trabajo generando mayores beneficios, ya que además de guiar al alumno/diseñador en su aplicación implica una manera organizada y estructurada de recogida de información facilitando su posterior presentación y razonamiento del problema propuesto. 

Palabras clave: Diseño, ingeniería, sistemas, sistémica, innovación, modelo, educación, productos, diseño conceptual.


ABSTRACT 

This article describes the use and application of a new methodology that has been developed for the conceptual design of new products, which emphasizes those innovating characteristics in design processes, thus fostering creative development. This is a dynamic model based on a cyclic thought that keeps the prescriptions that have been applied or decided without restrain by the designer. It comprises a broad range of disjointing and development degrees regarding their definition, while making it possible to record information during the whole process. Its application and further analysis for product conceptual development, such as their use in research works makes it feasible to undertake fundamental issues with respect to design and to have them transferred as the design own characteristics. Likewise, a teaching practice where the design has been used in engineering is shown, along with the outcomes that have been achieved. This model was applied in two groups of students who had some experience in product design. The model has assumed timing decrease, which in turn brought about results when compared with previous years. The use of this model manages knowledge on a separate fashion while using drawings as a representative synthesis, based on theoretical models that make up the product theoretical features according to the objectives that had been established. This model can be used as a guideline, since it completely states working patterns and, therefore, providing greater benefits, since in besides guiding students/designers in its application, it also implies an organized and structured manner of information gathering, thus making the suggested product further introduction and reasoning easier. 

Keywords: Design, engineering, systems, systemic, innovation, model, education, products, conceptual design.


INTRODUCTION 

The design of new products must respond to a series of varying requirements imposed by others – including the global market, the consumer, and the production department. A great deal of information must be processed when developing new products, and in this area information technologies are being combined with concurrent and collaborative approaches to engineering [1-2]. Product development is handled as a simultaneous and interactive activity from the beginning of the process, and now includes aspects that were previously resolved in prior phases. 

This is the definition of a new paradigm in product development; concentrating different strategic decisions regarding the new product in the initial design phases. 

This information and knowledge management [3] must be handled efficiently, so that the creative process results in real and innovative solutions. 

Product life management (PLM) [4] is seen as a model by companies attempting to optimise product engineering over the whole life of a product: from the initial steps such as conceptual design – to withdrawal at the end of the useful life of a product. 

In this context, our proposed focus using systemic methodology [5] enables information to be registered from the first creative thought and throughout the various design stages – and as a result this information becomes part of the knowledge management process. This innovative methodological focus is based on a model (the modelling phase) [6-7], that establishes the separation of the fundamental design factors. 

This division enables lateral thought because each product aspect must be independently and simultaneously analyzed. This requires a new approach and supposes a change in the way problems are focused – as well as a change in the way designers and engineers are taught. 

In this article, we will briefly comment on the model structure, and its teaching application as a learning model. 

Design and systemic 

If we apply these considerations to product design we can see that we are referring to a structure based on systems and multiple relations. The analysis of the influencing factors in conceptual design, as well as their values according to the proposed objectives and how we can incorporate these into conceptual design, opens new possibilities for designers. This process can be handled with an adequate knowledge management system – from the beginning of the design task to the end solution. Nowadays, one of the challenges posed is how to manage the various design phases and control the associated information. It must be remembered that most design work contains complexity levels requiring flexible information control processes. 

Systemic methodologies enable the consideration of these multiple factors – and the effects caused by diverse alternatives. 

Currently, much of the investigative work is based on the initial phases of the design process, and the subsequent use of the information generated for successive works [8]. 

Our work is based on the modelling of the factors that integrate design – with the aim of optimally managing the information and quickening product development by taking advantage of the accumulated experience in each development. 

An analysis of sub-systems and common relationships between types of products demonstrates how an initial definition of the design and common elements can be made for a range of products – independently of their shape characteristics [9]. 

Now, if we actually refer to the systemic approach as a methodological principle to be applied in product design, we might find out that there are some advanced methodologies having a high degree of systematization, such as the Hubka & Eder [10] and Pahl & Beitz [11] statements, which in turn are focused on defining an engineering design. Its approach has been stated with the purpose of undertaking the design of complex systems, as well as devices (technical systems), which means knowledge about engineering, calculus and strength, thus centering in that kind of products. Likewise, there is a similitude or a parallel condition with respect to the initial theoretical stages in a series of statements regarding the design process development. 

The proposal that has herein been stated assumes theoretical definition assumes the theoretical definition by means of a systemic disjointing of the initial variables. Such disjoining makes up the product definition out of a system in turn made up by three basic sub-systems, which by using relationship nodes among each other, make it possible to generate a dynamic system that is sensitive to the criteria and variables that have been introduced. 

Creative thinking 

We must take into account the thoughts that lead us to the maximum expression of creativity, and remember to plan for the management of knowledge so that generated information can be re-used. This is a creative and development optimization process. 

As the result of the union between the lineal [12], lateral [13] and cyclical thinking models, new system models can be established. This is the main theme of this article. 

Creative thinking [14] involves changing normal thinking patterns, also known as programmed thought [15]. It refers to breaking the thinking barriers – both logical and emotional. It creates a space where we can think about a problem by changing perspective and creating new original ideas. 

Lateral thinking also enables us to break thought patterns, and consequently helps create brilliant and original solutions for problems and new opportunities. 

Paul E. Plsek [16] poses a creative thinking model guided by the thinker, where creative processes require the impulsive implementation of ideas. He argues that it is not enough to just imagine new devices; we must work to make them reality. Systemic design models act as a support for the development and implementation of creative design: as shown in Plesk’s model phase IV. 


Figure 1. Directed creativity cycle: A synthesis model of the creative process. 

Figure 1 shows a model of creative process synthesis and the distinctive phases it passes through. These phases provide structure and help clarify the relationship between the mental and physical state of the individual – from preparation with ‘observation’ until the idea is specified through ‘implementation’. Creativity is the synthesis of ideas and concepts created through a radical reconstruction and reassociation. Innovation is the tangible implementation of creativity. 

Creativity, from the engineering point of view, may nearly be the same as the generation of ideas, while innovation is the application of these ideas to products.  The relationship between creativity and innovation suggested by W. Li, J. Tsai, S. Tseng, and I.F. Young. [17] establishes a parallel with the industrial design process. 


Figure 2. The stages of creativity and innovation in the design process. Diagram based on W. Li, J. Tsai, S. Tseng, and I.F. Young [17]. 

Figure 2 shows the engineering design process through a previous phase of strategic definition - before reaching the conceptual design phase (creativity) and the subsequent phase where solutions appearing in the detailed design phase (innovation) are applied and developed. According to this implementation scheme, the innovatory role of the proposal depends on translation of the creatives elements from the problem/solution space to the product space. 

Lateral and cyclical thinking 

If we take into account the creative process with the objective of promoting innovation, we should consider different thinking patterns. 

Lateral thinking raised by E. De Bono, breaks the pattern of habitual thought using methods that may seem at first illogical. The aim is to stimulate the generation of new ideas. 

Every innovative process is accompanied by a creative process. It is here where several approaches differ. According to E De Bono "Vertical thinking is analytic and moves only if there is a direction for it to move; lateral thinking is provocative and moves in order to create a direction." [18]. 


Figure 3. Diagram based on De Bono. 

The comparative diagrams in Figure 3 show the process of sequential thinking on the left; and lateral thinking on the right. The lateral approach jumps the sequence to include a new idea and so obtains a new result. 

As Bono says: "Vertical thought is based on a seque nce of ideas; lateral thought hops along." 


Figure 4. Diagram based on the concurrent model 

Figure 4 shows two characteristics of the concurrent model that establish a number of elements as starting points for developing a problem (number of elements = number of starting points). Feedback is not necessarily sequential and is shown as a mechanism to redefine and reconsider other aspects of the problem. 

Using systemic models for product development, creates a lateral thinking exercise which supposes the division of the product being designed into three subsystems: form, function, and ergonomics. This division enables the individual development and evaluation of each aspect, and also enables a simultaneous means to study the attributes of the product. So, it is useful to continue describing new proposals through a conceptual design. 

By being able to jump steps, solutions may be found from any step of the methodogical sequence. Moreover, the application of a model systemic that list all the sub-systems included in the model – through the use of relation variables – means global solutions can be obtained. However, a peculiar characteristic, such as finding as many starting points as elements, would be reflected in the model (Figure 5). This means that the actual starting point is irrelevant in the application of the methodological process (concurrent design model); and this, in turn, means that errors can be more easily detected and corrected. 

The model also implies a cyclical approach; it means that it has a feed-back approach in relation to the fundamental factors integrating the design. 


Figure 5. Cyclical thinking in the concurrent model 

Figure 5 shows the Concurrent Model along with its development in time, through a cycle-based thought, in turn guided by objectives that make it possible the achievement of consensus based and global definition of the product, by analyzing and defining those feedback factors and their relation. 

Christiaans [19] claimed in his study that: ‘the more time an individual invests in the definition and understanding of a problem, and consequently using his own references to create conceptual structures, the better prepared the individual is’. 

This conceptual structure is implemented thanks to the implementation of a systemic model described below. 


Figure 6. Systemic model for new product innovation and design (model of concurrent design, 2003). 

Figure 6 shows the use of the model as a mental mechanism to stimulate thought in three phases: I Conventional Thought – receiving information; II Subdivision – simultaneous and parallel division of design factors and definition, analysis, and decision; III Integration – the values and fundamental aspects of product design are weighted in a conceptual proposal which leads to a design concept. 

Systemic Model 

Many of the problems detected in recent decades regarding the complexity of data management no longer exist. This is thanks to the evolution of information technology, which is able to control and resolve difficult problems, not only from the point of view of the mathematical models used, but also because information technology provides the processes and common tools used by designers. 

Product analysis, with the aim of determining its integrating factors, has been traditionally been made in a rather intuitive way, from the first inklings of an idea to the termination of the task. 

Vitrubio made a division of the design characteristics in 32 BC, in terms of aesthetic, functionality and reuse. This was perhaps the first conscious division of the factors integrating design. In the last century, Mintzberg [20] discussed the field of form, and stated that the objective is to satisfy the aesthetic requirements of a product. In the same way, it is the aim of function to give technological aspects to a product; while ergonomics adapts the form and functional aspects to the user. 

After studying many models we can infer recurrent patterns that anticipate new working methods. From this systemic perspective we analyze the subsystems integrating design, considering all the aspects and formulating an analysis that we consider appropriate for the concept modelled. 

We propose an analysis based on decomposition of the fundamental subsystems of design: form, function, and ergonomics – into volumes, surfaces and contour limits. This division can incorporate all the values that integrate the design, enabling the construction of a conceptual model, formulated by objectives that can be generalized for any product analysis. 

Cases are analysed where the application is studied and appropriate definitions regarding volume, area, and outline are observed. The advantage of this division appears in its incorporation into systemic models which, in turn, establish theoretical models with the desired abstraction level. This shows that the system can be applied to all cases. 

With the development of systemic methods, especially in contributive design, we are able to choose the best response to the proposed objectives from the existing prescriptions and possibilities. This requires attributing characteristics to the product from a form, function, and ergonomic perspective. We aim to build concepts about the product when looking at the fundamental subsystems. 

To accurately look at volume, area, and outlines, we need to differentiate between positive volumes which belong to an object’s geometry, and negative volumes which define the geometrical considerations regarding normative restrictions, specifications, or particular considerations. These correspond to the environment, and are just as important as those attributed to the final physical shape of the product. These negative volumes belong to an immaterial world and are built from the geometries of use. The sum of the positive and negative geometries equals the ‘design space’, or design polyhedron from a geometrical point of view. Both define the external and internal factors that optimise the design objectives. 

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONCURRENT DESIGN MODEL IN DESIGN EDUCATION 

The normative model is taught in two parallel courses. The first course is entitled ‘Leisure and Auto Mechanics’ and is given in the school of Technical Design Engineering at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. The second course is called, ‘Design Methodology’, and is given in the 8th version of the University Masters Course in Design, Management and Development of New Products (DIGD). 

The model implementation stages were completed until the stage where the theoretical model was able to handle the conceptual design. The degree of separation and depth in the implementation of the model was set at two levels of difficulty – in relation to the level of student experience, and taking into account that the first group were design students while the second group were already design graduates. The task was to design a product up to the conceptual phase. This task was undertaken by teams of students varying between two and five members. 

We will discuss the application of the model to conceptual design phase. This model is from a group of third-year students of Industrial Design and Technical Engineering from the Leisure and Auto Mechanics course 2006/7. The implementation of the model was adapted according to the availability and the experience of the students. The criteria resulted in a process developed in the following stages: 


Figure 7. Steps in implementing the model. 

Figure 7 shows a sequence of six steps and the tasks associated with each in an implementation process leading to a conceptual design. 

The following steps were taken to implement the model phase corresponding to the concurrent design: 

1.   Choose a Product 

Various sources were consulted to determine what kind of product to design: opinion polls (user necessities), previous designer knowledge (experiences and tastes), necessity or opportunity detection, and customer demand (requirements). Also, the objectives of the product must be defined. This is fundamental as it serves as a guideline for all of the subsequent process.

All of the steps inside the different phases are movable; meaning that they can be improved and changed, by analysis and feed-back. 

2. Comparative Matrix 

In this market study, all the products with similar characteristics to the chosen product are grouped together. The product characteristics are analysed separately – establishing advantages (A) and disadvantages (D) from a form, functional, and ergonomic point of view for each point. See Figure 9. Such analysis of formal, functional and ergonometric characteristics in a disjointing manner makes it possible to have a preliminary approach toward both the systemic scope that has been suggested by the methodology and the theoretical practice that is implied by such cognitive process.

 
Figure 8. Product comparative matrix. 

Figure 8 shows an analysis of the types of products using form, function, and ergonomic variables in a visual and textual description to help organisation and processing. It also shows the status of the Matrix technique that sorts and classifies product description on a systemic way, while emphasizing the formal, functional and ergonomic features in order to make further product analysis as well as the assortment of the characteristics the new product is expected to have easier. 

3.  Attributes + Regulations 

Once the attributes of the product have been defined, other attributes not previously included in the competence matrix are considered, such as regulations which could condition or limit the proposal. 


Figure 9. Standardised measurements for a mountain bike.
 

Figure 9 illustrates the measurements and relationships imposed by the design norms of a mountain bike. There are some standardized parametric relations that have to be complied by the time a frame for different kinds of mountain bikes is designed, together with the different sizes or dimensions (M, L, XL, XXL), depending on how tall users might be. 

These are listed in a simplified modeling that relates and includes the attributes for each sub-system are added (form, function, and ergonomics). 


Figure 10. Concurrent Design Model. 

Figure 10 displays the structure of the complete model, the the external system input variables, the sub-system objectives and the three integral sub-systems of design that are Form, Function and Ergonomics. 

4. Conceptual Models 

Once the attributes to be carried out by each subsystem have been incorporated, they are passed to the conceptual model implementation. This is the first attempt at converting the theoretical concepts to geometry. It is achieved by a theoretical diagram for each subsystem that is represented by an isometric cube, which simulates a space in which the different conceptual aspects, in terms as volume, surface and contour limits can be incorporated. This mental abstraction practice demands a great and complex effort; it also requires acute analysis as well as high relationship capabilities. 

The following stage shall be the introduction of examples for the setting up of concept-based models by making use of the "A seat for urban transportation" project. Then, after conducting market research, product and its objectives definition, in addition to the definition and study of the comparative matrix, together with the fundamental features this product is expected to have, all these characteristics are converted into the geometries to be displayed in a physical context. Such geometries are both positive and negative: positive volume (+) such as back up, and negative volume (-), i.e., space: for instance, the necessary space to take hold of body concavity. 

The implementation of the conceptual model is shown below using the ‘Urban Transport Chair’ project. 


Figure 11. Functional Conceptual Model for "A Seat for Urban Transportation". 

Figure 11 above shows the geometrical criteria that have been implemented for function definition, which are given through functional outline Volumes, Surfaces and Borders. Functional characteristics are geometry related. By doing so, the "anti-vandalistic and safe" concepts are converted into two volumes that shall provide structure and strength to the projected product. 


Figure 12. Ergonomic conceptual model for a ‘Urban Transport Chair’. 

Figure 12 shows the geometric criteria used for the definition of ergonomy – given as volumes, surfaces, and ergonomics contours. 


Figure 13. Form conceptual model for a ‘Urban Transport Chair’. 

Figure 13 shows the geometric criteria adopted for the definition of form – given as volumes, surfaces, and formal contours. 

5. Integration 

This is the moment where the different models that were independently generated (form, function and ergonomics) must be integrated. Every attribute and its consequences must be analyzed and valued (for example, detecting cases where two objectives are opposed), ranking the attributes in each case, and establishing unitary agreement. 

It is important to highlight that because of the reasons mentioned earlier regarding the experience and the abstraction ability of the students, we chose a work flow in the modelling stage that had already inter-related the characteristics of each subsystem to the next subsystem, so suggesting a form, function, and ergonomic order for implementation. This made creating the model much easier because the variables in the model should be transferred to the next. Therefore, because of students’ high level of expertise and abstraction competence, a modeling working sequence was chosen. Such sequence has inter-related the facets of each sub-system with the following one. This helped the integration, as each individual model began with the proposal made in the previous model. 


Figure 14. Integration of a conceptual model for a sketching transport and support system. 

Figure 14 shows the integration of the geometric aspects of each sub-system into just one system. This process of synthesis and assessment does not consist in simply summarising results, but includes the integration and hierarchisation in a geometry that provides answers for the three sub-systems at product level. 

On the other hand, with respect to the drawing support and transportation system, the fundamental volumes that are related to the product main features and that make its operating capacity possible have been defined. 

6. Design Space 

This is the definition of a theoretical space where the different factors that compose the design process have to be modelled and studied. In this space, all the decisions made by the designer must be coherent. 

7. Conceptual Design 

In this proposal of conceptual design, the different design architectures included in the design space must be evaluated. Matrix methods, based on theory, or other methods chosen by the designer can be used. It is advisable to use a process capable of valuing complex solutions; and it must not be forgotten that complexity in most any design requires levels of decision not usually achievable from intuition. 


Figure 15. Conceptual design of a snow vehicle. 

Figure 15 shows an example of a conceptual design illustrated with an image that reveals the structure and form characteristics of the proposed product. It is worth emphasising that at this stage the representation is used as a medium of visualisation and structurisation of the theoretical aspects previously defined [21]. 

RESULTS 

The implementation of the model of concurrent design in teaching, and as a method of working, offers advantages, not only because it makes up a working guideline with specific steps to follow when designing, but also because it shortens the development of a conceptual design.

The implementation of the model is suggested as a six-step process. Each of these steps is, in turn, divisible into activities with specific objectives. It can be shown that following the model has quickened the process and improved results compared with previous years. 

DISCUSSION 

Implementing this model as a work tool in design teaching is similar to establishing guidelines. It is worth remembering that the majority of students already had experience in product design. Undoubtedly, using the model offers advantages over traditional procedures. It offers a different approach that manages knowledge separately, and does not just use the design drawing as an immediate tool looking for a solution. The implementation of the model implies that these solutions respond in a specific way to the objectives of that specific moment, it may be guaranteed that the selected solution is not the first solution that came to mind. In many methods, it is automatically assumed that the result is based in designer experience, without reflecting on the analysis and depth level that concurrent design allows in its minimal conceptual expression. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The present model is a theoretical working tool that guides the designer in the process of product design, avoiding possible mental blocks or hesitations. 

It analyses any product design in an ordered and structured way – locating the problems to be resolved and trying to clarify all possible implications in design fields. It also enables, unlike traditional design methods, the search for alternative and innovative designs, and optimizes customer or designer requirements from the beginning by fixing objectives. 

This procedure is not free of inconveniences when compared to traditional methods. This is because it requires detailed work instead of the comparatively easy search for a bright idea, although keeping the contribution of the accumulated experience. Accordingly, this procedure requires greater dedication in its initial phase, but produces useful knowledge databases regarding the product model in the medium and long-term. 

It has been verified that after the first application, students begin to acquire some experience and that it turns out to become quite useful for further developments because it establishes work guidelines. This represents a double advantage because these guidelines guide the student in an organized and structured way to use information, and this helps develop the posterior presentation and problem reasoning. 

Another advantage is that a large part of the necessary modelling phase data for the initial design is repetitive and independent of the design in question. If this information is properly recorded, it shall become pretty useful for further designs. 

On the other hand, when studying the different products, great coincidences were also found in the sub-systems, variables and, in general, regarding relationships among sub-systems. Because much of the information is repeated, this means that product-type models can be generated. 

Such iterative processes in model application, as well as planned feed-back, prevent involuntary oversights. 

The promotion of lateral and cyclical thinking requires encouraging innovative development. It is understood that the setting up of new innovating methodologies themselves make it possible to foster innovation, to contribute tangible benefits for the design of new products, as well as in those companies where they are developed.

REFERENCES 

[1] F. Aguayo y V. Soltero. "Metodología del diseño industrial: un enfoque desde la ingeniería concurrente". Editorial Ra-Ma. Primera Edición, p. 631. Madrid, España. 2002.

[2] M. Contero, P. Company, C. Vila and N. Aleixos. "Product Data Quality and Collaborative Engineering". IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. Vol. 22 Nº 3, pp. 32-42. May/June 2002.

[3] E. Awad and H.M. Ghaziri. "Knowledge Management". Prentice Hall. United States Ed edition. 1st Edition, p. 480. Englewood Cliffs. United States. 2003.

[4] M. Agustin, B. Hernandis and J. Briede. "PLM Lab: a Research and Test initiative involving Industry, Developers and University". International Technology, Education and Development Conference INTED. Valencia, España. 2007.

[5] L. Ferrer. "Del paradigma mecanicista de la ciencia al paradigma sistémico". SP-Universidad de Valencia, pp. 324-336. Valencia, España. 1998.

[6] B. Hernandis. "Diseño de nuevos productos. Una perspectiva sistémica". Cursos on-line. Formación Tutorizada a Distancia por Internet. Interf@d. Servicio de Publicaciones Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. 1ª Edición, p. 289. Valencia, España. 1999.

[7] B. Hernandis "Desarrollo de una Metodología Sistémica para el Diseño de Productos Industriales". Tesis para optar al grado de doctor. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, p. 359. Valencia, España. 2003.

[8] B. Hernandis. "Experiencias en torno al Diseño Sistémico de Productos". Primer Encuentro Interinstitucional de Diseño Industrial. Vol. 3, pp. 1-7. Mérida, Venezuela. 2005.

[9] B. Hernandis, M. Arribas, J. Bonmatí, J. Briede, M. Cabello, S. Llorens y A. Valero. "Análisis de los subsistemas integrantes del diseño". Publicación: Primeras Jornadas de Diseño de Productos. Editorial de los Andes. ISBN 980-11-0859-2, pp. 1-12. 2005.

[10] V. Hubka and W.E. Eder. "Design Science". Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 1996.

[11] G. Pahl and W. Beitz. "Engineering Design. A Systematic Approach". Ed. Springer Verlag. 1996.

[12] A. Esteves. "Creación y proyecto. El método en diseño y otras artes". Editorial Institució Alfons el Magnànim. 1ª Edición, p. 160. Valencia, España. 2001.

[13] E. De Bono. "El pensamiento lateral. Manual de creatividad". Ediciones Paidós Ibérica SA, pp. 48-49. Barcelona, España. 1974.

[14] B. Hernandis y M. Cabello  "Creatividad, Innovación y desarrollo de nuevos productos". 2007. Fecha de consulta: 15 de Agosto 2006. URL: http://www.impivadisseny.es/disseny/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=70&Itemid=76

[15] Mind Tools Ltd. "Programmed Thinking & Lateral thinking". 2007. Fecha de consulta: 20 de diciembre 2006. URL: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCT_00.htm

[16] P. Plsek. "Working Paper: Models for the Creative Process". Fecha de consulta: 20 diciembre 2006. URL: http://www.directedcreativity.com/pages/WPModels.html

[17] W. Li, J. Tsai, S. Tseng and I.F. Young. "Generation of New Ideas for Product Functions and Engineering Innovation Practices: A Hands-on Project Model for Mechatronics Education". Exploring Innovation in Education and Research iCEER-2005, pp. 1-9. Tainan, Taiwan. 2005.

[18] E. De Bono. "El pensamiento creativo: el poder del pensamiento lateral para la creación de nuevas ideas". Ediciones Paidós Ibérica SA, p. 464. Barcelona, España. 1999.

[19] H. Christiaans. "Creativity in design". PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. 1992.

[20] H. Mintzberg. "Managing the form, function and fit to design". Ed. Design Management Journal. Vol. 2 Nº 3. 1991.

[21] J. Briede. "La Metodología Sistémica y el Rol del Boceto en el Diseño Conceptual de Productos Industriales". Tesis Doctoral no publicada. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Valencia, España. 2008.


Received: October 08, 2007, Accepted: October 14, 2009


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Valores directivos: sus efectos sobre el diseño e implementación de la estrategia (2008)
Liliana Pedraja-Rejas, Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce, Juan Rodríguez-Ponce
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10
La percepción subjetiva como factor primordial en el diseño conceptual de productos: una propuesta metodológica (2008)
Jaime A. León Duarte, Luís F. Romero Dessens, Jaime Olea Miranda
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11
Estilos de liderazgo y resultados del sistema de medición de la calidad de la educación: un estudio empírico en los colegios básicos de la ciudad de Arica-Chile (2009)
Liliana Pedraja Rejas, Emilio Rodríguez Ponce, Manuel Barreda Olavarría, Omar Sagredo Núñez, Cristian Segovia León
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12
Integración de componentes com de MATLAB/SIMULINK en el entorno case XBDK, para el modelado de sistemas de conformación de haz (2009)
Mariano Raboso Mateos, Alberto Izquierdo Fuente, Juan J. Villacorta Calvo, Lara Del Val Puente, Mª Isabel Jiménez Gómez
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13
Modelo visual para el mapeo y análisis de referentes morfológicos: aplicación educativa en el diseño industrial (2013)
Juan Carlos Briede Westermeyer, Alonso Rebolledo Arellano
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14
Estado del arte sobre la integridad estructural de uniones soldadas y modelos de propagación de grietas para la gestión de vida en estructuras (2013)
Oscar Javier Araque de los Ríos, Nelson Arzola de la Peña
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15
Solución computacional de modelos biológicos de formación de patrones espacio-temporales (2009)
Juan C. Vanegas A., Nancy S. Landinez P., Diego A. Garzón A.
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16
Karagabi Kmmodel: modelo de referencia para la introducción de iniciativas de gestión del conocimiento en organizaciones basadas en conocimiento (2009)
Alberto de J. González, Caroll Z. Joaquí, Cesar A. Collazos
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17
Estratégia para modelagem numérica de sistemas mistos considerando diferentes modelos de ruptura para os materiais (2009)
Julio Cesar Molina, Carlito Calil Junior
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18
Characterization of deposits formed in a water distribution system (2009)
Félix Echeverría, Juan G. Castaño, Carlos Arroyave, Gustavo Peñuela, Auxilio Ramírez, Jordi Morató
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19
Modelado, simulación y control del robot para cirugía laparoscópica ‘lapbot’ (2009)
Sergio Alexander Salinas, Oscar Andrés Vivas Albán
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20
Restauración de servicio multiobjetivo en redes de distribución utilizando NSGA-II (2009)
Jorge Mendoza Baeza, Fabian Rojas Lago
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21
Métodos de estimación no lineal aplicados al problema de expectativas de inflación (2009)
Mauricio Arriagada-Benítez, Héctor Valdés-González, Liliana Pedraja-Rejas
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22
Desafíos de la educación superior en la economía del conocimiento (2010)
Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce, Álvaro Palma-Quiroz
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23
Engenharia do conhecimento aplicada ao serviço de atendimento ao cliente na indústria do software (2010)
Mauricio Uriona Maldonado, Adriano Coser
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24
Ingeniería reversa y comprensión de programas dirigida por modelos: un ejemplo (2010)
Eugenio G. Scalise P., Jean-Marie Favre, Nancy Zambrano
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25
Modelación de líneas aéreas de transmisión para el cálculo de sobretensiones originadas por el rayo (2010)
Juan A. Martínez-Velasco, Ferley Castro-Aranda
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26
Transformación de esquemas multidimensionales difusos desde el nivel conceptual al nivel lógico (2010)
Sabina Carrera Sepúlveda, Marcela Varas Contreras, Angélica Urrutia Sepúlveda
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27
Estudio estadístico del número de reglas resultantes al transformar una gramática libre de contexto a la forma normal de Chomsky (2010)
Fredy Ángel Miguel Amaya Robayo, Edwin Andrés Murillo Fernández
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28
Estudio teórico experimental de la humidificacion adiabática en aplicaciones HVAC&R (2010)
Néstor Fonseca, Cristian Cuevas
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29
Representación en EMTP de dispositivos de protección de redes de distribución con generación distribuida (2010)
Juan A. Martínez-Velasco, Jacinto Martín-Arnedo, Ferley Castro-Aranda
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30
Una propuesta didáctica para la caracterización de dispositivos y redes eléctricas de radiofrecuencia en la banda de 100 KHz a 500 MHz (2010)
R. Linares y Miranda, H. E. González-Jaimes, J. López-Bonilla
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31
Un nuevo modelo dinámico híbrido de tren metropolitano (2010)
Ingeborg Mahla, Ricardo Ovalle
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32
Gestión del conocimiento, liderazgo, diseño e implementación de la estrategia: un estudio empírico en pequeñas y medianas empresas (2010)
Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce, Liliana Pedraja-Rejas, Milagros Delgado, Juan Rodríguez-Ponce
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33
Bases y desafíos de la aplicación de convenios de desempeño en la educación superior de Chile (2011)
Ricardo Reich Albertz, Flora Machuca, Daniel López Stefoni, Juan P. Prieto, Juan Music, Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce, Jorge Yutronic
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34
Estrategia de inclusión de tecnología móvil en el aula: experiencia de la Universidad de Tarapacá (2011)
Hernando Bustos Andreu, Milagros Delgado Almonte, Liliana Pedraja Rejas
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35
Criterios de transferibilidad del enfoque concurrente en los procesos de diseño y desarrollo de productos de las pequeñas y medianas empresas chilenas (2011)
Carole Baudin
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36
Circuito equivalente de un transformador con regulación (2011)
Juan A. Martínez-Velasco, Francisco de León
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37
Modelo predictivo del espesor de la capa de óxido y microdureza en aluminio Al3003-B14 y Al6063-T6 anodizado usando análisis multifactorial (2011)
Leonardo Eladio Vergara Guillén, Luis Manuel Nerey Carvajal, Víctor Manuel Guedez Torcates
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38
Turbulencia sintética tridimensional: escalamiento anómalo en el rango inercial y propiedades multifractales de la disipación (2011)
Carlos Rosales H.
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39
Modelación, simulación y control de procesos de fermentación (2011)
Nelson Aros, Marcelo Cifuentes, Javier Mardones
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40
Una propuesta para el diagnóstico de fallos en sistemas industriales mediante el uso de estrategias bioinspiradas (2011)
Lídice Camps Echevarría1 Orestes Llanes Santiago2 Antonio J. Silva Neto
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41
Una plataforma de evaluación automática con una metodología efectiva para la enseñanza/aprendizaje en programación de computadores (2011)
Jorge López Reguera, Cecilia Hernández Rivas, Yussef Farran Leiva
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42
Sistema audiovisual para reconocimiento de comandos (2011)
Alexander Ceballos, Andrés F. Serna-Morales, Flavio Prieto, Juan B. Gómez, Tanneguy Redarce
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43
El impacto del sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad en el servicio entregado por las universidades privadas en Chile (2011)
Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce, Liliana Pedraja-Rejas, Carmen Araneda-Guirriman, María González-Plitt, Juan Rodríguez-Ponce
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44
Análisis comparativo entre las cadenas productivas del sector textil-confecciones de la provincia de Jiangsu-China y el departamento del Atlántico-Colombia (2011)
Hugo José Mercado Cervera, Tomás José Fontalvo Herrera, Efraín de la Hoz Granadillo
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45
Estudio exploratorio del impacto de la red social en el nivel individual de aceptación de sistemas empresariales (2012)
Patricio Ramírez Correa, Jorge Alfaro Pérez
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46
Diseño basado en diagnóstico de fallos y sistemas híbridos aplicado en un equipo de desfibrilación ventricular (2012)
Alberto Prieto Moreno, Orestes Llanes-Santiago, Alejandro Milanés-Cruz, José Folgueras-Méndez, Emilio García-Moreno, Francisco Morant-Anglada
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47
Enfoque MDA para el diseño de un data warehouse difuso (2012)
Carolina Zambrano Matamala, Marcela Varas Contreras, Angélica Urrutia Sepulveda
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48
La educación superior en Chile y el rol del mercado: ¿culpable o inocente? (2012)
Emilio Rodríguez Ponce
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49
Desafíos para el profesorado en la sociedad del conocimiento (2012)
Liliana Pedraja Rejas
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50
Un enfoque de ingeniería de requerimientos basada en el alineamiento de almacenes de datos y la estrategia del negocio (2013)
Ania L. Cravero, Samuel E. Sepulveda, José N. Mazón, Juan C. Trujillo
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51
Modelo para la representación de redes y búsqueda de caminos óptimos en Sistemas de Información Geográfica (2013)
Rafael Rodríguez-Puente, Manuel S. Lazo-Cortés
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52
Un modelo multifractal simplificado para flujos de tráfico en redes de computadoras de alta velocidad (2013)
Ginno Millán Naveas, Enrique San Juan Urrutia
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53
Análisis de la calidad de la energía en un centro de cómputos (2013)
Juan Antonio Suárez, Guillermo di Mauro, Daniel Anaut, Rubén di Mauro, Jorge L. Strack
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54
Taxonomía de riesgos de outsourcing de software (2013)
Gloria Piedad Gasca-Hurtado, Bell Manrique Losada
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55
Propuesta de un modelo de gestión de mantenimiento y sus principales herramientas de apoyo (2013)
Pablo Viveros, Raúl Stegmaier, Fredy Kristjanpoller, Luis Barbera, Adolfo Crespo
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56
Teoría generalizada de la potencia instantánea aplicada a la compensación de cargas polifásicas (2012)
Armando Jaime Ustariz-Farfan, Eduardo Antonio Cano-Plata, Hernán Emilio Tacca
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57
Modelación de los efectos de la compensación de potencia reactiva en sistemas de suministro eléctrico (2012)
Davel Borges Vasconcellos, Ignacio Pérez Abril, Vicente León Martínez
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58
Un procedimiento para evaluar el riesgo de la innovación en la gestión del mantenimiento industrial (2012)
Fernando F. Espinosa, Acires Dias, Gonzalo E. Salinas
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59
Diseño de programas de asignaturas basados en competencias y su aplicación en la Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile (2012)
Fabricio Salgado, José Corrales, Luis Muñoz, Juan Delgado
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60
Compensación de potencia reactiva en sistemas desbalanceados utilizando algoritmos genéticos (2012)
Davel Borges Vasconcellos, Ignacio Pérez Abril, Vicente León Martínez
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61
Modelo práctico del transformador de distribución trifásico para análisis de transitorios de baja frecuencia: Identificación de parámetros (2012)
Jorge E. Celis-Montero, Ferley Castro-Aranda, Juan A. Martinez-Velasco
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62
Modelo de conocimiento conceptual como apoyo a la Ingeniería del Conocimiento (2012)
Mónica Henao-Calad, Vanessa Rodríguez-Lora
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63
Análisis de variables e indicadores empleados para medir la sociedad de la información (2012)
Mayda Patricia González-Zabala, Jenny Marcela Sánchez-Torres
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64
Comparación de diferentes algoritmos metaheurísticos en la estimación de parámetros del modelo relacional general de cromatografía líquida en columna (2014)
Reynier Hernández Torres, Mirtha Irizar Mesa, Orestes Llanes Santiago, Leôncio Diógenes T. Câmara, Antônio José da Silva Neto, Lourdes M. Zumalacárregui de Cárdenas
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65
Mejoramiento de la calidad del café soluble utilizando el método Taguchi (2014)
Amparo Zapata Gómez, William Ariel Sarache Castro
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66
Reducción de características usando una red tipo RBFpara clasificar estilos de aprendizaje en estudiantes de primer año de ingeniería (2014)
Oswaldo Velez-Langs
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67
Desarrollo de una base de datos integrada de Censo y encuesta mediante el uso de elementos de inteligencia de negocios y SIG (2014)
Robert Cornejo, Mónica Navarrete, Ricardo Valdivia, Patricio Aroca, Sebastián Aracena
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68
Método de diseño de un Data Warehouse Histórico, tiempo válido explícito en modelos multidimensional (2014)
Carlos G. Neil, Marcelo E. De Vincenzi, Claudia F. Pons
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69
Transformación de requisitos representados en esquemas preconceptuales a modelos de interacción de sistemas holónicos (2014)
Carlos M. Zapata, Gloria L. Giraldo, Germán Zapata, Adrián S. Arboleda
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70
La especificación formal en contexto: actual y futuro (2014)
Edgar Serna M., Alexei Serna A.
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71
Caracterización de los sistemas de productos en el marco de la personalización, la variabilidad y la diferenciación. Un estudio con expertos (2014)
John J. Cardozo V., Bernabé Hernandis O., Nélida Y. Ramírez T.
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72
Desarrollo del sistema motriz virtual de una plataforma subacuática móvil inspirada en biomimetismo (2014)
Rubén Darío Muelas H., José Tomás Buitrago, Breyner Posso Bautista
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73
Modelo aumentado de árbol de decisión utilizando mapas autoorganizados (2014)
Wilson Castillo-Rojas, Fernando Medina-Quispe, Claudio Meneses-Villegas
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74
Un modelo flexible para la simulación de distribución de ciudades (2014)
Pablo Ramírez, Paul Leger, Andrés Vallone
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75
Estudio comparativo de las acciones a considerar en el proceso de diseño conceptual desde la ingeniería y el diseño de productos (2014)
Mauricio Guerrero Valenzuela, Bernabé Hernandis Ortuño, Begoña Agudo Vicente
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76
Revisión de la caracterización y evaluación de mezclas drenantes (2014)
Allex E. Alvarez-Lugo, Oscar J. Reyes-Ortiz, Rodrigo Miró
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77
Tomada de decisões em leilões de energia elétrica de longo prazo (2014)
Mauro S. S. Pinto, Claudio R. Martins, Sidney N. Cerqueira, Sergio A. Trovão, Osvaldo R. Saavedra
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78
Aplicación de un diseño curricular modular para la enseñanza del cálculo diferencial (2014)
Elias Irazoqui Becerra, Antonio Medina Rivilla
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79
Extracción de objetivos y su clasificación en el modelo de KAOS a partir del procesamiento del lenguaje natural (2015)
Luis Alfonso Lezcano R., Jaime Alberto Guzmán L., Sebastián Alonso Gómez A.
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80
Modelagem de um sistema de gestão na Educação a Distância no Brasil utilizando redes de Petri Coloridas (2015)
Régia T. S. Araújo, Manuel E. S. Araújo, Fátima N. S. de Medeiros, Giovanni C. Barroso
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81
Un ambiente de meta-modelado y visualización basado en el paradigma de Zoomable User Interfaces (2015)
Jaime A. Pavlich-Mariscal, Hernan D. Veliz-Quispe, Steven A. Demurjian, Laurent D. Michel
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82
Una aproximación a la clasificación de las universidades chilenas (2015)
Emilio Rodríguez-Ponce, Héctor Gaete Feres, Liliana Pedraja-Rejas, Carmen Araneda-Guirriman
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83
Factores que afectan la formación de redes para el aprendizaje colaborativo: un estudio empírico conducido en una universidad chilena (2015)
Patricio Ramírez-Correa, Carolina Fuentes-Vega
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84
Método de localización de fallas basado en impedancia aparente para sistemas de distribución con generación distribuida (2015)
César A. Orozco Henao, Juan José Mora Flórez, Sandra M. Pérez Londoño
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85
Análisis comparativo de modelos de madurez en inteligencia de negocio (2015)
Roberto Prieto Morales, Claudio Meneses Villegas, Vianca Vega Zepeda
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86
Comportamiento de la volatilidad de los precios del petróleo crudo West Texas Intermediate y productos refinados antes y después de la crisis financiera de 2008: un abordaje a través del análisis de contratos futuros (2015)
Thaís C. Azevedo, Fernando. L. Aiube, Carlos.P. Samanez, Claudio S. Bisso, Leticia A. Costa
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87
Optimización de sistemas simulados a través de técnicas de superficie de respuesta (2015)
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Rita Patricia Peñabaena
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88
Visualización exploratoria e interactiva de modelos de reglas de asociación (2015)
Wilson Castillo-Rojas, Alexis Peralta, Camilo Vargas
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89
Análise dos tempos entre chegadas de lotes em uma indústria alimentícia (2015)
Claudio Luis Piratelli, Jorge Alberto Achcar, Renata Regina Sandrim
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90
Eficiencia en las instituciones educativas públicas de la ciudad de Santa Marta (Colombia) mediante "Análisis Envolvente de Datos" (2015)
Rolando Escorcia Caballero, Delimiro Visbal Cadavid, José Mario Agudelo Toloza
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91
Nuevo enfoque para la localización óptima de reconectadores en sistemas de distribución considerando la calidad del servicio y los costos de inversión (2016)
Oscar D. Montoya G., Ricardo A. Hincapié I., Mauricio Granada E.
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92
Control de proyectos de software: actualidad y retos para la industria cubana (2016)
Jacqueline Marí­n Sánchez, José Alejandro Lugo García
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93
Modelos de optimización para el diseño sostenible de cadenas de suministros de reciclaje de múltiples productos (2016)
Michael Feitó Cespón, Roberto Cespón Castro, Manuel Alejandro Rubio Rodrí­guez
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94
Formalización de un modelo de trabajo con empresas en una carrera de ingenierí­a (2016)
Rodolfo Schmal Simón, Sabino Rivero Flores, Cristian Vidal Silva
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95
Método mejorado de simulación multiescala del viento sobre terreno complejo para la evaluación del recurso eólico (2016)
A. Flores-Maradiaga
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96
Caracterización experimental y modelación de una bomba de calor reversible para un vehículo eléctrico (2016)
Cristian Cuevas, Vincent Lemort
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97
Determinación de restricciones de capacidad de producción en proceso de obtención de cobre (2016)
Jaime Núñez Segovia, Johann Godoy Garvs, Luis Pérez Pozo
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98
Aplicación del diseño D-Optimal en la modelación de la adsorción de COVs-Cl sobre zeolitas naturales chilenas modificadas (2016)
Andrés L. Riquelme, Héctor Valdés
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99
Aplicaciones de inteligencia artificial en procesos de cadenas de suministros: una revisión sistemática (2016)
Gabriel A. Icarte Ahumada
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100
Modelado de un sistema de refrigeración caracterizado en un rango amplio de condiciones de operación (2016)
Cristian Cuevas, Néstor Fonseca
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101
Análisis comparativo de algoritmos de control semi-activo aplicados a amortiguadores magnetoreológicos (2017)
Luis A. Lara V., José L.V. Brito, Yamile Valencia G.
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102
Diseño de una estrategia de control difuso aplicada al proceso de ultracongelación de alimentos (2017)
Rafael J. García, Angel D. Pinto, José Eduardo Rengel, Juan M. Torres, Jaime A. González, Nelson A. Pérez
PDF
103
Contribución a la logística inversa mediante la implantación de la reutilización por medio de las redes de Petri (2017)
L.O. Vega de la Cruz, C.E. Marrero Fornaris, M.C. Pérez Pravia
PDF
104
Modelo de aproximación lineal para la medición de resiliencia en cadenas de suministro (2017)
Daniel Romero Rodríguez, Weimar Ardila Rueda, Ernesto Cantillo Guerrero, Alvaro Sierra Altamiranda, Fabián Sánchez Sánchez
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105
Una nueva definición de la logística interna y forma de evaluar la misma (2017)
Orlem Pinheiro de Lima, Sandro Breval Santiago, Carlos Manuel Rodríguez Taboada, Neimar Follmann
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106
Usos de las TIC en América Latina: una caracterización (2017)
Darío J. Quiroga-Parra, Joan Torrent-Sellens, Claudia Patricia Murcia Zorrilla
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107
Evaluación de calidad en el desarrollo de software dirigido por modelos (2017)
Viviana Esterkin, Claudia Pons
PDF
108
Resistencia al aplastamiento de pernos de acero en cuerpos de prueba de madera de acuerdo con las normas técnicas ABNT NBR 7190:1997 y ASTM D5764:2007 (2017)
Julio Cesar Molina, Diego Rodrigues de Oliveira, Murilo Negreli, Ernesto Abel Fernando Friedmann Pallarolas
PDF
109
Diseño de una red de monitorización de variables meteorológicas relacionadas a los tornados en Barranquilla-Colombia y su área metropolitana (2017)
Alejandro Cama-Pinto, Gabriel Piñeres-Espitia, Zhoe Comas-González, Jaime Vélez-Zapata, Francisco Gómez-Mula
PDF
110
Modelado de la viscosidad aparente de un petróleo crudo de 11ºAPI con comportamiento no newtoniano (2017)
Héctor Laurencio Alfonso, Amauris Gilbert Hernández, Yoalbys Retirado Mediaceja
PDF
111
Modelo para la estimación de una frecuencia natural a partir de la respuesta vibratoria de un sistema sometido a un barrido sinusoidal de alta aceleración (2018)
Ignacio Tomasov Silva, Cristian G. Rodríguez
PDF
112
Visualización Interactiva para Modelos de Clústeres (2018)
Wilson Castillo-Rojas, Juan Vega Damke
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113
Patrones de diseño para la construcción de cursos on-line en un entorno virtual de aprendizaje (2018)
Danilo Pástor, Jovani Jiménez, Gloria Arcos, María Romero, Luis Urquizo
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114
Repensando la programación como formación práctica en Ingeniería: Un estudio de caso en primer año (2018)
Natalia Monjelat, Guillermo Rodríguez
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115
Ubicación de dispositivos móviles en ambientes interiores por medio de análisis de radiación de redes WiFi y deformaciones de campo magnético (2018)
Carlos A. Gómez R., Luis F. Pedraza
PDF
116
Selección óptima de conductores en sistemas de distribución empleando el algoritmo búsqueda tabú (2018)
O.D. Montoya G., A. Grajales, R.A. Hincapié I.
PDF
117
Factores organizacionales y de entorno que predicen el uso de TIC en empresas chilenas: Una aplicación de redes neuronales (2018)
Karina Carvajal Cuello, Manuel Ossa Barraza, Alejandro Cataldo Cataldo
PDF
118
Caracterización de marcos de desarrollo de la interfaz de usuario para sistemas interactivos basados en distribución de contenido de video (2018)
Alexandra Ruiz, Jose L. Arciniegas, William J. Giraldo
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119
Análisis del comportamiento de líneas de transmisión frente al rayo mediante el método de Monte Carlo y cálculo paralelo (2018)
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120
Diseño de un agente para sistemas complejos como herramienta para ciencia basada en diseño (2018)
Robinson Jiménez Moreno, Ruben Hernández B., Javier Martínez
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121
Metodologías, técnicas y herramientas en ingeniería de requisitos: un mapeo sistemático (2018)
Dante Carrizo, Jorge Rojas
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122
Evaluación del desempeño de roles en equipos de desarrollo de software. Utilización de escalas de valoración (2018)
Yucely López Trujillo, Margarita André Ampuero, Ana Lilian Infante Abreu, Katerine Escalera Fariñas, Sandra Verona Marcos
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123
¿Cómo se aplica la ingeniería del conocimiento en la investigación de mercados? Estudio de caso (2018)
Vanessa Rodríguez-Lora, Alejandro Valencia Arias
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124
Experiencia de trabajo para la configuración del ERP Odoo en pequeños negocios. Caso de éxito en TostoneT (2018)
Yanelis Pavón González, Liber Puente Baró, Marta Infante Abreu, Jeffrey Blanco González
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125
Factores implicados en la transferencia de resultados de investigación en las instituciones de educación superior (2018)
Jackeline Macias Urrego, Alejandro Valencia Arias, Iván Montoya Restrepo
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126
Modelo de gestión de mantenimiento parcial a interruptores de potencia mediante inteligencia artificial (2018)
Israel Gondres Torné, Santiago Lajes Choy, Alfredo del Castillo Serpa
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127
Estructuras metodológicas de revisiones sistemáticas de literatura en Ingeniería de Software: un estudio de mapeo sistemático (2018)
Dante Carrizo, Carlos Moller
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128
Una aplicación de Realidad Aumentada para recorrer el sitio patrimonial “Aldea de San Lorenzo” (2018)
Marcelo Muñoz-Sajama, Diego Aracena-Pizarro, Rodrigo Cornejo-Mejías, Mónica Navarrete-Álvarez
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129
Una dinámica de larga duración para fomentar la participación en clases (2018)
Ricardo Valdivia Pinto, Yordan Vera Castillo
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130
Efecto de la velocidad de calentamiento sobre las propiedades mecánicas y resistencia a la corrosión de aleaciones de titanio modificadas (2018)
Ma. Mercedes Cely, Grey Castellar O., Jhorman Pereira C., Robert Ángel V.
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131
Análisis y gestión de redes inteligentes en Colombia hacia la solución ETAP Real Time (2018)
R. Franco-Manrique, E. Gómez-Luna, C. A. Ramos-Sánchez
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132
Modelo de referencia para la integración del modelado de negocio a la ingeniería de requisitos: una propuesta desde la industria del software (2018)
María Claudia Bonfante, Luis Alfredo Blanquicett, Enrique Díaz Infante
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133
La gestión del conocimiento, una política organizacional para la empresa de hoy (2018)
Erica Janet Agudelo Ceballos, Alejandro Valencia Arias
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134
Revisión de modelos de madurez en la gestión de los procesos de negocios (2018)
Gabriel Páez, Claudia Rohvein, Diana Paravie, Mario Jaureguiberry
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135
Modelo para la Integración Curricular de Ingeniería Industrial en Mercosur (2019)
Diana I. Paravié, Edwin V. C. Galdamez, Gislaine Camila L. Leal, Franco J. Chiodi, Silvia B. Urrutia, Fernando J. Cusolito
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136
Efecto de la variación del volumen diario medio y de la tasa de crecimiento del tráfico en el desempeño de los pavimentos flexibles (2019)
Amanda Sati Hirooka Koshigoe, Fernando César Vargas Zanoni, Carlos Alberto Prado Silva Júnior, Heliana Barbosa Fontenele
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137
Formulación basada en daño para materiales teniendo en cuenta la Bimodularidad y Anisotropía (2019)
José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba
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138
Márgenes de contribución óptimos en servicios de alimentación usando control de inventarios con dependencia estadística (2019)
Fernando Rojas
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139
LMS SaaS: Una Alternativa para la Formación Virtual (2019)
Jhon Francined Herrera-Cubides, Nancy Yaneth Gelvez-García
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140
Modelo para la estimación de potencia eléctrica en módulos fotovoltaicos de tecnología basada en silicio (2019)
Francisco Javier Eraso, Olger Ferledy Erazo, Edisson Escobar
PDF
141
Sistema Inteligente de Información Geográfica para las empresas eléctricas cubanas (2019)
Nayi Sánchez Fleitas, Raúl Comas Rodríguez, María Matilde García Lorenzo
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142
Tratamiento de aguas residuales provenientes de industria de productos de limpieza y desinfectantes por ozonización convencional y catalítica (2019)
Aline Martins Pinheiro, Marcio Ricardo Salla, Maria Lyda Bolanos Rojas
PDF
143
Aplicación del método Scoring para la clasificación integral de clientes (2019)
Rosario C. Garza Ríos, Caridad N. González Sánchez, Ernesto L. Rodríguez González
PDF
144
Modelo VHDL de Control Neuronal sobre tecnología FPGA orientado a Aplicaciones Sostenibles (2019)
Cecilia Sandoval-Ruiz
PDF
145
Desarrollo de sistemas ciber-físicos de producción para Procesamiento por lotes usando normas IEC-61499 e ISA-88 (2019)
Carlos A. García, Esteban X. Castellanos, Marcelo V. García
PDF
146
Estimación de la radiación solar global, mediante temperaturas extremas, aplicando el modelo Bristow-Campbell en la región Junín, Perú (2019)
Bécquer Frauberth Camayo Lapa, David Elvis Condezo Hurtado, Adam Yanina Ramos Cadillo, Juan Raúl Massipe Hernández, Adrian Becquer Camayo Vivas
PDF
147
Revisión de la implementación de Lean Six Sigma en Instituciones de Educación Superior (2019)
David Rodrigo Guerrero Moreno, Jorge Antonio Silva Leal, Claudia Cristina Bocanegra-Herrera
PDF
148
Evaluación de la percepción estudiantil en relación al uso de la plataforma Moodle desde la perspectiva del TAM (2019)
Norka Bedregal-Alpaca, Víctor Cornejo-Aparicio, Doris Tupacyupanqui-Jaén, Sidanelia Flores-Silva
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Otros Artículos

# Título Ver
1
Reducción de características usando una red tipo RBFpara clasificar estilos de aprendizaje en estudiantes de primer año de ingeniería (2014)
Oswaldo Velez-Langs
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2
Monitoreo de uniones soldadas de acero al carbono usando el ruido magnético de Barkhausen (2015)
Claudia P. Serna-Giraldo, Linilson R. Padovese
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3
Efecto del agua sobre el asfalto y su posible influencia en el daño por humedad en una mezcla asfáltica porosa (2016)
Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana, Juan Carlos Ruge Cárdenas, Luis Ángel Moreno Anselmi
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Desarrollado por: Cristian Díaz Fonseca - cfonseca@matiasluke.cl